The variety of fish species recorded in Madidi Nationwide Park and Pure Built-in Administration Space (PNANMI), Bolivia has doubled to a staggering 333 species — with as many as 35 species new to science — in accordance of a examine carried out as a part of the Identidad Madidi expedition led by the Wildlife Conservation Society. The outcomes are described within the newest concern of Neotropical Hydrobiology and Aquatic Conservation.
The examine lists the fish species whose presence in Madidi has been confirmed, together with these recorded in the course of the Identidad Madidi expeditions, and a compilation of species occurrences listed in earlier research, offering an estimate of the whole ichthyological richness for this protected space. The species checklist for the Madidi protected space consists of 35 doable new species for science.
Species vary in dimension from the invasive arapaima (Arapaima gigas), a mouth respiratory large weighing in at greater than 200 kg and greater than 3 m lengthy, to the seasonally plentiful killifish (Anablepsoides beniensis) from the Rivulidae household present in swimming pools in pure savannas which can be simply 1.5 cm lengthy. The checklist additionally consists of probably the most enticing gamefish from the Amazon, the golden dorado (Salminus brasiliensis), in addition to migratory catfish from the Amazonian goliath catfish (Brachyplatystoma filamentosum) to the tiny chipi chipi pencil catfish whose large collective migration is a neighborhood phenomenon (Trichomycterus barbouri). One other killifish (Orestias sp.) is present in a number of the highest Andean lakes at 4,300 m in Madidi, while within the stagnant ponds of the great Amazon electrical knife fish (Gymnotus carapo) and the swamp eel (Synbranchus madeirae), and within the fast-flowing streams of the Amazon headwaters, a number of species of bare catfish (Astroblepus spp.), together with possible a number of new species for science.
The 35 doable new species for science consists of candidates of the genus Knodus, Microgenys, Moenkhausia, Characidium, Apareiodon, Brachyhypopomus, Ernstichthys (genus reported for the primary time in Bolivia), Astroblepus, Trichomycterus (together with one species just lately described and named in honor of a pioneer French ichthyologist in Bolivia), and a three-barbled catfish (Cetopsorhamdia), a hanging pike cichlid (Crenicichla) and a captivating bumblebee catfish (Microglanis), amongst others.
The biodiversity surveys and discipline analysis had been carried out between 2015 to 2018 by specialists from the Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS), the Institut de Recherche pour le Développement de Montpellier (France) and the Nationwide Museum of Pure Historical past and the Ecology Institute of the Universidad Mayor de San Andrés. Madidi might be the world’s most biologically numerous protected space resulting from a singular altitudinal gradient of just about 6,000 m spanning the Tropical Andes and the Amazon.
For 4 years, the specialists carried out intensive ichthyological sampling at 13 websites in Madidi Nationwide Park, utilizing completely different sampling methods: electrofishing, gill nets, trawls, hook and line, and ichthyoplankton nets. Ichthyoplankton species had been recognized by genetic characterization (metabarcoding). A complete of 333 species distributed in 43 households and 13 orders had been recorded. This quantity doubles the beforehand identified ichthyofauna (161) in Madidi.
The biggest variety of species are discovered within the order Characiformes (139 species; 41.7 %), adopted by Siluriformes (137 species; 41.1 %), and Cichliformes (19 species; 5.7 %), which collectively signify 88.6 % of species richness. The remaining 11.4 % is distributed in 10 different orders. The households with the best variety of species are the characids (73 species; 21.9 %), loricariids (36; 10.8 %), heptapterids (21; 6.3 %), pimelodids (21; 6.3 %) and cichlids (19; 5.7 %).
Lead creator of the examine, Guido Miranda, of the Wildlife Conservation Society stated “With an extension of 18,957.5 sq. kilometers (7,319 sq. miles), Madidi covers 1.3 % of the Madeira River basin, however conserves 25 % of the identified species within the basin. Madidi additionally represents only one.8 % of the Bolivian territory, but it surely conserves nearly 40 % of the ichthyofauna recorded in Bolivia. This examine has greater than doubled our data about fish range on this unimaginable protected space, however with a number of sub-basins but to pattern within the park, that is solely the start.”
Dr. Rob Wallace, Senior Conservation Scientist on the Wildlife Conservation Society, chief of the Identidad Madidi expeditions, and coauthor, stated “As a consequence of its nice range of habitats, largely because of the altitudinal gradient from 184 meters (Heath River) to six,044 meters (Chaupi Orko Peak), Madidi is taken into account probably the most biodiverse protected space on the planet. The Identidad Madidi initiative aimed to firmly set up this record-breaking standing for the park, while speaking the significance of Madidi to the Bolivian individuals. That is the primary of a number of biodiversity abstract articles that the Bolivian scientists on the expedition are systematizing to share the outcomes of our efforts with Bolivia and the world.”
Research authors embody: Guido Miranda-Chumacero1, 3, Jaime Sarmiento2, Soraya Barrera2, Martin Velasco2, Jorge Molina-Rodriguez1,3, Gabriel Tarifa3, Camila Ramallo3, Oscar Ayala3, Kelvin Herbas3, Erick Loayza3, Débora Alvestegui3, Gustavo Alvarez1, Jean-François Renno4, Cédric Mariac4 & Robert B. Wallace1
1Wildlife Conservation Society, Bolivia Program, La Paz.
2Museo Nacional de Historia Pure, La Paz, Bolivia.
3Unidad de Ecología Acuática, Instituto de Ecología, Universidad Mayor de San Andrés, La Paz, Bolivia.
4Institut de Recherche pour le Improvement, Montpellier, France.